Health EducationHealth Education
Renal failure is renal cell injury which leads to reduced renal cell amount and inadequate elimination of body waste. When the injury is irreversible, it is called chronic renal failure. When the kidney is severely injured and leads to symptoms like edema, nausea, vomiting, and conscious disturbance, it’s called “uremia”.
Polycystic kidney is also called bubble kidney. Most patients belong to autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease. It mainly involves kidney, followed by liver and pancreas.
Nephrotic syndrome is caused by increased permeability of glomeruli, large amount of urine protein loss ( >3.5 g per day and subsequently leading to hypoalbuminemia < 3.0g/dl ), edema and hyperlipidemia (mainly cholesterol).
Peptic ulcer disease occurs when stomach acid penetrates the stomach and/or duodenal lining and causes sores or erosions. It is typically caused by an acid resistant bacterium called Helicobacter pylori ( H. pylori ).